Вестник Кольского научного центра РАН. 2010, №2.

I.A. Kornilov, T.A. Kornilova GENERATION OF THE VLF EMISSIONS AT THE SUBSTORM GROWTH PHASE About one hundred breakup events of various types and intensities have been investigated using observations of the Lovozero observatory. Auroral activity by TV data was analyzed along with geomagnetic pulsations in different frequency ranges, and VLF emissions. It was found that the magnetic pulsations in all frequency ranges lag behind the auroral breakup by 0.5 - 2 minutes, while the bursts of VLF emissions of the type of weak broadband hiss preceed the breakup by 3 - 10 minutes, corresponding to weak auroral forms north of the pre-breakup arc. Keywords: substorm, auroral breakup, geomagnetic pulsations, VLF-emissions. Yu.V. Balabin, E.A. Maurchev, E.V. Vashenyuk, B.B. Gvozdevsky DETALIED STUDY OF THE MULTIPLICITY PHENOMENON ON NEUTRON MONITORS On the basis of large data set obtained with the help of a new unique data collecting system, the detailed analysis of events of neutron multiplicity М = 2 - 30 on neutron monitors (NM) in Barentsburg (Spitsbergen), Baksan (North Caucasus) and Apatity was carried out. It was possible for the first time to register on a NMs local showers in cosmic rays with high accuracy in order to investigate their structure. The mathematical model of the course of multiplicity processes in a NM is developed. Modeling the multiplicity phenomenon on a NM using the Monte-Karlo package GEANT-4 is executed. For the first time based on the data of neutron monitors local hadronic cascades in the atmosphere with the cross size from 1 up to 20м are found out. Keywords: neutron monitor, cosmic rays, local air showers, hadrons, spectra of multiplicity. Yu.V. Balabin, E.V. Vashenyuk, B.B. Gvozdevsky EAS AND MULTIPLICITY ON THE NEUTRON MONITOR In the Baksan Neutrino Observatory conjugation of two detectors of cosmic radiation was performed: the installation of EAS "Carpet" and the neutron monitor (NM). Due to flexibility of the new high-speed collection system master impulses, coming from the "Carpet" and signaling the arrival of a EAS, is connected to the NM data as accurate as 1 microsecond. As a result of data processing for more than 220 days, it is found that the duration of the EAS in NM is 1 ms. The distribution of time intervals between pulses in the first milliseconds after a EAS differs significantly from the average for a NM, showing the presence of two processes with characteristic times of 45 and 230 microseconds. Keywords: neutron monitor, cosmic rays, extended atmospheric showers, multiplicity, hadrons, distribution of intervals. O.M. Lebed, S.V. Pilgaev, Yu.V. Fedorenko THE METHODS FOR HARMONIC SIGNAL PHASE MEASUREMENTS INA NETWORK OF GEOPHYSICAL STATIONS The paper discusses the methods of processing of harmonic signal data obtained by data acquisition system designed and developed at the PGI that allow to determine signal phases and amplitudes at geophysical stations and to estimate their confidence intervals. The proposed algorithms are exemplified by processing the data obtained in PGI observatories of Lovozero and Barentsburg and at four closely spaced sites in the vicinity of Apatity, Murmansk region. Keywords: harmonic signal, phase measurement. M.E. Shkarbaluk, S.V. Pilgaev, A.V. Larchenko, O.M. Lebed, Yu.V. Fedorenko EMULATOR OF GLONASS / GPS RECEIVER FOR USE AS A SOURCE OF PRECISE TIME This paper describes the emulator of GLONASS / GPS receiver designed at PGI KSC RAS for geophysical research. With thermostatically-controlled crystal oscillator used as a master clock the deviation of the time supported by the emulator from the true universal time (UTC) measured at the rising edge of PPS pulse is about 15 microseconds during 20 hours. With Rubidium Frequency Standard the deviation of time supported by the emulator from UTC is less than 4 ms per 20 hours. To determine the subsequent exclusion of the linear trend of deviation from UTC the emulator is able to be synchronized at the beginning and the end of the session. The device is capable of working with different types of master oscillators and GPS/GLONASS receivers emulating GPRMC sentence and PPS pulse. The device is relatively simple, highly reliable and easy to maintain and setup. Keywords: emulator GLONASS/GPS receiver, geophysical research, generating timestamps. 111